Kingfisher Book of Facts and Records (Kingfisher facts &

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Watkins (following Karl Popper) “all and some propositions.” Because they have this kind of double generality, they are both unverifiable and unfalsifiable. Davidson, Donald. “Radical Interpretation.” Dialectica 27 (1973): 313–328. The topics covered are, for the most part, in the field of popular philosophy or religious controversy, such as Adam, apocalypse, tout est bien (all is good), confession, enfer (hell), inquisition, and so on.

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The Dorling Kindersley Children's Illustrated Encyclopedia

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Three Criminal Law Reformers: Beccaria, Bentham, Romilly. That “(x)Fx” is true if and only if it can be proved does not mean that “(x)Fx” is a statement about certain entities called proofs in the way in which, on the usual interpretation, it is a statement about the totality of natural numbers. The Bridgewater Treatises marked the final stage of the general confidence of men of science in the old natural theology, although religious thinkers long continued, and still continue, to appeal to it.

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Visual Encyclopedia of Science

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Reflection and Doubt in the Thought of Paul Tillich. Prayoga also means “intensifying effort,” or applying oneself with increasing vigilance. See also Enquiry concerning Human Understanding, An (Hume) on universals, 3:303–304, 9:598–599 utilitarianism and, 3:382–383, 3:384, 9:605 Veblen and, 9:655–656 on virtue and vice, 9:247 voluntarism of, 9:714–715 on “why,” 9:755 on will, 4:501–504 on Wollaston, 9:834 Humean best-system theory causal reduction and realism in, 2:96–100 chance and credence, 2:128–129 Humean (regularity) view of laws of nature, 5:225–231 Humean supervenience, 3:191 Hume’s Abject Failure: The Argument against Miracles (Earman), 3:161 Hume’s principle, 6:672 Frege and, 3:730, 5:517 neo-Fregeanism and, 3:731 Humor, 4:514–519 as Chinese religious excellence, 2:226 incongruity theories of, 4:516–517 melancholy, 7:247–248 in Schiller’s Mind!, 8:625 Seneca’s Pumpkinification of Claudius, 8:813 in Stace’s “Refutation of Realism,” 9:200 in Swift’s social satire, 9:339–341 theories of, 4:515–517, 4:517–518 types of, 4:514–515, 4:517–518 See also Comedy Humphreys, Paul, on explanation, 3:525–526 Humphrey’s paradox, conditional probability and propensity, 2:128 Humpty Dumpty, as nominalist, 9:599 Hunger, 20th-century debate on, 3:443 Hungerland, Isabel C., on presupposing, 7:766–767 Hunt, William H., 4:774 Hunter, W.

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Fascinating Facts

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In its more developed forms, sacramental theology ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PHILOSOPHY 2nd edition • 371 RELIGION becomes more definite, but it is still true that to the extent that a religion is preoccupied with a sacramental approach to the divine, it is more impatient than prophetic religion with doctrinal subtleties. K., 1953), is popularly supposed to have proclaimed the death knell of political philosophizing. Still, he also seems to have indicated in the “Dissertation sur la liberté” that the freedom to direct attention is an original mental ability (1947–1951, vol. 1, p. 316).

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Body (Mini Encyclopedias)

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Hájek, Alan. “What Conditional Probability Could Not Be.” Synthese 137 (2003): 273–323. ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PHILOSOPHY 2nd edition • 543 BEN GERSHON, LEVI Along with Johann Friedrich Herbart and some others, Beneke represented a reaction against the FichteSchelling-Hegel phase of German philosophy. Problems for such suggestions arise because the principle generates triviality if the logic contains contraction ((Ar(ArB))r(ArB)) and modus ponens.

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The Trojan War

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The most fun- damental indirect passions are pride/humility and love/hatred, but they also include ambition, vanity, envy, pity, and malice. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press, 1995. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998. These two features of Hutcheson’s philosophy are echoed in the empiricist sentimentalism of Hume. Newton’s (1687) gravitational field ascribes to every point of space a quantitative disposition for bodies to move (absent other bodies, if a body were at a point a distance r from a body of mass M then it would have acceleration proportional to M/r2), which distinguishes it from the ancient plenum.

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Children's Encyclopaedia of Questions and Answers: Bk. 2

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Denis Diderot, Claude-Adrien Helvétius (1715–1771), and baron d’Holbach (1723– 1789) derived, from a materialistic theory of nature, an ethical view based on the self-centered pursuit of pleasure as the sole rational motive for action. Once can call a function f polynomial-time computable (or for short, P-time computable) if there is a program e for f and a polynomial p such that for every x, the program e computes f(x) in no more than p(

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Junior Encyclopedia

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Montevideo: Ediciones Pueblos Unidos, 1965. The criterion of 288 • ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PHILOSOPHY 2nd edition PHENOMENOLOGY completeness used earlier was that a definition of “phenomenon” is complete only if it is consistent with the first of the three requirements for phenomenological statements—that they are nonempirical. In the Republic the Being of the Forms is introduced on epistemic grounds as the object of knowledge, in contrast to the imperfect reality of the sensible manifold as object of doxa. (The deficient reality of the many beautiful things is reflected in the fact that they are beautiful in some respects, not beautiful in other respects.

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Oxford Children's Encyclopedia

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The latter half of the twentieth century saw the careful development of a variety of views about the relationship between ultimate standards and the more particular and diverse moral rules familiar from everyday life. Doubtless there had been interchange of ideas, which was fostered even by the New Academy’s insistence on argu- ing on both sides of the question, but Antiochus blurred the quite different approaches of the schools to a com- mon area of dispute. See also Baier, Annette; Ethics, History of; Hobbes, Thomas; Rationalism in Ethics (Practical-Reason Approaches).

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Bionicle Encyclopedia

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See Kala Silva, Alcino, 6:568 Silver, Jack, 8:845 Silvester III, Pope, 4:66 Sima Guang on Laozi, 5:194 on Yang Xiong, 9:861 Simchen, Ori, on analytical jurisprudence, 1:170 Simeon Stylites, St., 1:350 Similarity(ies) counterfactuals in science and, 2:574 as gestalten factor, 5:127 grammatical vs. logical, 8:580–581 in mathematics, 8:546–547 in metaphor, 6:166 in neo-Wittgensteinianism, 1:299 Similarity circle, 6:178 Simmel, Georg, 9:30–32 on culture, 6:545 Lukács and, 5:602 in neo-Kantianism, 6:545 and Scheler, 8:615 Simmons, Keith, on truth, 5:317 Simocatta, Theophylactus, Copernicus on, 2:533 Simon, Richard, 9:32–33 higher criticism and, 5:196 on Spinoza, 2:265 Simon Magus, 4:98, 4:100, 9:33–34 Simondon, Gilbert, on philosophy of technology, 7:543 2nd edition • 601 index Simonianism, 9:34 Simons, Menno, Franck and, 3:714 Simple(s), Wittgenstein on, 9:805, 9:808, 9:811 Simple laws, of nomic form, 3:709 Simple supposition, 5:557, 9:776 Simple theory of types, definition of, 5:558 Simpliciter predication, concepts of, 5:70 Simplicity in beauty, Winckelmann on, 9:790 Campbell on, 2:18 in chaos theory analysis, 2:131–133 Copernican theory and, 2:535 Daoism and, 2:237 of God, 1:114, 1:140, 4:110, 4:116 Goodman on, 4:157 of nature, 7:652 Rehmke on, 8:303 in scientific theories, 2:18 structural, theory of, 4:157 in utopianism, 9:617 Wittgenstein on, 9:811 Simplicius, 9:34–36 Aristotle and, 1:279, 5:408, 6:555 on concentric spheres, 4:172 Diogenes of Apollonia and, 3:89 on Empedocles, 3:212 Epictetus on, 3:262 on eternal return doctrine, 3:353 exile of, 6:553 on limited and unlimited argument, 9:874 Melissus and, 6:120 on Moving Rows paradox, 9:876 and Neoplatonism, 6:554 panpsychism and, 7:83 Parmenides of Elea and, 7:122–123 on Philoponus, 6:555 on polytheism, 6:555 Simply ordered, definition of, 5:550 Simulating Minds: The Philosophy of Psychology and Neuroscience Mindreading (Goldman), 4:148 Simulation account, of folk psychology, 3:680 Simulation theory, 9:36–41 Simultaneity absolute, in classical physics, 9:495 Bergson on, 9:489 causality and, 2:586–588 conventionalism and, 2:523–525 divine causality and, 2:588 relative, in special relativity, 9:496 Salmon on, 8:594 theory of relativity and, 3:179, 9:496 thought experiment on, 9:453–454 Simultaneously satisfiable, definition of, 5:556 Sin Abelard on, 1:6 as act of will, 7:175 Anselm on, 1:214, 1:217 anxiety as cause of, 6:605 Augustine on, 3:402, 3:472 Calvin on, 2:12 Camus on, 2:23 in Christianity, 2:248–249 Descartes on, 3:12 and determinism, 3:8 Erigena on, 3:341 free will and, 1:217 hiddenness and, 7:484 as logo astratto, in Gentile, 4:52 nature and, 6:521 New Land Buddhism and, 2:169 Niebuhr on, 6:605 noetic effect of, 2:12 Ockham on, 9:783 original Anselm on, 1:217 Augustine on, 1:399 choice as, 4:801 in collective guilt, 4:194 and doctrine of radical evil, 5:30 Eberhard on, 3:161 Edwards (Jonathan) on, 3:169 and evil, problem of, 3:469–470 ignorance resulting from, 4:96 Jaspers on, 4:801 Locke on, 5:395 Losskii on, 5:577 Malebranche on, 5:671 Maritain on, 5:714 modern theology on, 3:474 in Pelagianism, 7:175 society and, 1:399 in Stephen’s agnosticism, 9:243 Pelagianism on, 7:175 predestination and, 3:10 as resistance to God’s will, 2:9 Schleiermacher on, 8:634 as source of error, 1:721 subjectivity of, 1:6 Taylor (Alfred) on, 9:374 Wolff on, 9:827–828 See also Morality Sincerity, Zhou Dunyi on, 9:880 Singer, Marcus, 3:430, 5:36, 9:25 Singer, Michael, 3:256 Singer, Peter, 3:561, 9:41–42 on act utilitarianism, 9:612–613 on animal rights, 1:208, 8:667–668 consequentialism and, 2:461 on conventional morality, 3:389 on duty to aid others, 3:443 on economic inequality, 3:385 Sidgwick and, 9:25 on utilitarian moral cosmopolitanism, 2:569 Single-party system, representation in, 2:701 Singlet state, 6:640, 8:214–215 Singular name, in logic, definition of, 5:549 Singular proposition(s) definition of, 5:553 Kaplan on, 2:708 Suárez on, 9:283 vs. universal propositions, Ockham on, 9:778 Singular term, definition of, 5:556 Singularity (grammatical), semantics of, 8:57 Singularity (in physics) black hole as, 1:606–609 in chance, frequency and propensity of, 2:127–128 kalam argument on God’s existence and, 2:555 space-time, Earman on, 3:160 unique evolution and, 3:33 Sinn, 7:299, 8:60–61 Sinn unseres Daseins, Der (Reiner), 5:354 “Sinnhafte Aufbau der sozialen Welt, Der” (Schutz), 8:664 Sircello, Guy, on art, 1:304 Siris (Berkeley), 7:615 Siro, Philodemus of Gadara and, 3:264 Sistema di logica come teoria del conoscere (Gentile), 4:50 Sisterhood, obstructions to, 3:606 Sisterhood Is Powerful (slogan), 3:599 Sisyphus fragment, 6:632 Situated epistemic agency, 3:576 Situated knowers, partiality of their perspectives, 3:577 Situated knowledge, 3:575–576, 3:592 Situated robotics, 1:347–348 Situation being-in, 8:607 definition of, 1:456 Dewey on, 3:49 Sartre on, 1:456, 8:607 of sense object, 9:749 Situation Semantics (Barwise & Perry), 8:809 602 • ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PHILOSOPHY 2nd edition index Situationality, Jaspers on, 4:801 Siva, in meditation, 6:108 Six livres de la république (Bodin), 7:422, 9:140 “Sixth Cartesian Mediation: The Idea of a Transcendental Theory of Method” (Fink), 3:638 Size as determinable, 3:1–2 paradox of, 9:872–873 Skandhas (aggregates), Vasubandhu on, 9:650–651 Skelton, Peter, on natural selection, 7:341 Skeptical Chemist (Boyle), 1:674 Skeptical idealism, of Oakeshott, 7:1 Skeptical Inquirer (periodical), 7:116 “Skeptical paradox,” Kripke on, 5:150 “Skeptical solution,” Kripke on, 5:150 Skeptical Zetetic (periodical), 7:116 Skepticism academic, 1:193–195, 3:703, 4:501, 7:311–312, 8:175–176 Aenesidemus on, 1:30 Agrippa and, 1:96 aitia in, 1:100 ancient, 1:191–197 Antiochus of Ascalon and, 1:222 and apologism, 1:229 Arcesilaus and, 1:247–248 arguments for, 5:103 art in, 1:335–337 and astrology, 4:302 and atomic theory, 1:643 attributor contextualism and, 2:485–487 in autonomous idiolects, 8:753 Bayle on, 1:506–507 and belief, 1:474, 2:12, 2:93–94 Berkeley on, 3:302, 4:556 Boyle on, 1:675 in British empiricism, 3:218–219 Buddhism and, 9:544 Calvinism and, 2:12 Carneades and, 1:194–195, 2:46, 4:174, 7:312 and Catholic rule of faith, 9:51 Cavell on, 2:115–116 and chance, 2:129 Charron on, 2:134–135 in Chinese philosophy, 2:189, 2:200, 2:227 in civilization, 8:460 Clitomachus and, 1:195 common consent arguments for God’s existence and, 2:347–348 common sense and, 1:510, 2:355–356 contemporary, 9:42–47 contextualist solution to, 9:136–137 Daoism and, 2:189–190 on definition, 2:668 vs. deism, 2:681 Descartes on, 2:727–729, 2:738–741, 2:745–746, 3:291 in dialectical method, 4:272 Diogenes Laertius on, 3:88 dogmatism and, 1:191–193 empiricism and, 3:215, 3:220, 5:645 Encyclopédie and, 3:222 Epicurus and, 3:269 epistemology and, 3:274–275, 3:278, 3:282–283, 3:288, 7:325, 7:409 ethical, in Daoism, 2:197–198 and ethics, 3:399 evidentialism and, 3:468 fictionalism and, 9:626 in film, 7:384 in French clandestine writings, 2:264 and Galen, 4:6 Galileo on, 4:11–12 Glanvill on, 4:95–97 Gödel on, 4:117 Gournay on, 4:166 in Greece, 1:191–194 in Greek Academy, 1:247, 4:171, 4:174 Hegel on, 4:272 history of, 9:47–61 in history of metaphysics, 6:192–193 Huet and, 4:469–470 Hume and, 3:303–305, 4:500–501, 4:637 and indirect perception, 1:577 inferential justification and, 2:275 inquiry in, 1:191–192 in Islamic Spain, 9:50 on justice, 9:673 on knowledge, 3:318 La Mothe Le Vayer on, 5:182 and laughter, 1:469 Le Clerc on, 5:236 in legal theory, 7:451 and limited certitude, 9:54 and linguistic negativity as intellectualized disappointment, 2:115 Locke (John) and, 3:216 in logical positivism, 9:58 Lucian of Samosata on, 5:597 in Madhyamika doctrine, 1:743 ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PHILOSOPHY Maimon and, 5:645–646 Manheim and, 5:686 in mental-physical distinction, 6:140 Mersenne on, 6:152–153 in metaphysical solipsism, 9:115–116 in Middle Ages, 9:50 Mill (John Stuart) on, 6:225, 6:230 mitigated, 4:26–27, 9:52 Moore on, 7:108–109, 9:817 moral, 6:393–394 in morality, 6:618–619 of natural law, 6:510 of New Academy, 7:607 Nicolas of Autrecourt on, 6:602 optimism/pessimism and, 7:247 paradigm-case argument against, 7:106–113 paradox of, 8:23 Pascal on, 7:131–134 patristic philosophy and, 7:141–142 Philo of Larissa and, 7:311 Pico della Mirandola (Gianfrancesco) on, 7:574–575 and pious fideism, 1:506–507 Plato and, 1:192–193 postmodern, 7:395–397, 9:59 precursors to, 1:192–193 probable impressions and, 2:48 Pyrrhonian, 1:192–193, 3:399, 8:173–176 and Pythagoreanism, 8:184–185 questions asked in, 9:797–798 reason and, 1:505 and religious pluralism, 8:419 in Renaissance, 8:425 Rensi and, 8:433 Sanches on, 8:595–596, 9:52 Santayana and, 8:601 Schulze and, 8:660 and science, 1:474, 4:11–12 Sextus Empiricus on, 1:191–192 Shakespearean tragedy and, 9:525 Socrates and, 3:399, 4:173, 9:113 sophists and, 9:130–131 Stoicism and, 1:193–194, 4:173 suicide and, 9:319 of supernatural religion, 6:230 as theoretical problem, 9:684–685 Timon of Phlius on, 9:501 on underdetermination, 9:577 and unobservables, 1:643 and value of knowledge and truth, 5:102–103 Vico on, 9:671–672 2nd edition • 603 index Skepticism, continued virtue epistemology and, 9:684–685 Wittgenstein and, 9:817 Wolff on, 4:553 Xenophanes and, 1:192 “Skepticke, The” (Raleigh), 9:50 Skeptic’s Handbook of Parapsychology, A (Kurtz), 7:115 Sketch for a Historical Picture of the Progress of the Human Mind (Condorcet), 2:409, 2:431–432, 3:244 Skill art as, in Aristotle, 1:296 Daoist concepts of de and dao and, 2:192–193 Skillfulness, as excellence in Chinese religion, 2:225 Skinner, B.

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